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                                     Linux Operating System Structure (Architecture)

1) Linux Introduction.

                Linux is the one of the fast growing GNU base software and nowadays Linux getting more familiar with the people around the world more than the last few years.  Linux is an operating system that evolved from a kernel created by "Linus Torvalds".It has various flavors in the present  Linux Mint, Red hat, Ubuntu, Debian, Linux Lite for laptops and some security issues like Kali Linux in present. Unlike other most popular operating systems, Linux having something more in simply than pointing clicking pointing clicking all over your Display screen (GUI).      

In generally Linux operating system comes with two parts.

 1.1) Kernel Mode

 1.2) User Mode


1.1) Kernel Mode

In simply Kernel mode organized the operating system process.


1.2) User Mode.

 In generally this execute the application programs.

So then if we go little far beyond these two things, we can divide it in to 5 parts like this.

1.2.1) Kernel

1.2.2) Shell

1.2.3) System Utilities

1.2.4) User Application

1.2.5) Hardware Platform


Ok now letfs get the brief explanation about the 5 things that we talking about


1.2.1) What is Linux Kernel?

Kernel is the interface between the operating system and the hardware. Linux Kernel is free and open source software and itfs released under GNU and developed by all around the world.  Kernel is the main part of the operating system and loads first and remains in main memory. It is the bridge between application and actual data processing to support the application, And also responsible for the task management, memory management and disk management. Linux kernel was initially conceived and create in 1991 by Linus Torvalds, student of Finnish Computer Science. ( Linux kernel written in C language )


1.2.2) What is Shell?

 Shell is act as an interface between user and the operating system.. Shell is the peace of software that provide an interface of user to an operating system, which needs services of Kernel. Shell divided in to two parts. Command Line GUI Command Line.

Command line is a part of operating system which receives and execute the operating system commands. By the user, the commands are send to the Kernel for execution, if the command is valid the Kernel start the execution else error will be produce. GUI (Graphic User Interface).

 This provide the user friendly environment. User cannot syntax of all the commands so GUI helps to point out the objects by mouse or some pointing device, which a user required for its execution.


**  Between Kernel and Shell.

When user gives the commands for performing any operation, that request goes to the Shell. The Shell then translate human program to the machine language and then transfer it to the Kernel. Kernel receives the request from the Shell and process the request and then display the result on the serene. All these functions are performed by the Kernel in the background.


1.2.3) What is System Utilities?

 The System Utilities consist of various system interrupts and system calls. Which is transfer the controls for the user mode to the Kernel mode connecting the Kernel and Shell for further execution of the commands. The controls can be transfer using System Calls.


1.2.3-1)System calls.

Simply this is an interface between a process and the operating system. The word System Call is the request of any running program and for performing any operation on the system that user has requested. Mainly it has 4 types of System Calls.

..1) File management system call

..2) Process control system call

..3) Device management system call

..4) Communication system call


1.2.4) User Applications.

This is which user require to perform its tasks. You have lot of applications in the Linux system like Office suite, Open shoot, Fine box, Drop box, My paint likes.


1.2.5) Hardware platform.

This comes with as all of us know, keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, I/O cards ect. 




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